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Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2018

Review Article JFSF, Vol 3, No 1, March 2018, p.1-7
Sarcopenic Dysphagia. A Narrative Review
Spilios Dellis, Soultana Papadopoulou, Konstantinos Krikonis, Filippos Zigras
Keywords: Sarcopenia, Sarcopenic dysphagia, Nutrition, Rehabilitation
Abstract
Sarcopenic dysphagia is described as difficulty swallowing due to generalized sarcopenia of skeletal muscles and thus swallowing muscles. It is a recently recognized condition. It draws attention due to its important complications.The risk factors of dysphagia include age, history of clinical disease, and physical frailty, including reduced activities of daily living. It is a common syndrome among the elderly and demands multidisciplinary therapeutic interventions, including nutritional support and rehabilitation programs, which are non-invasive but effective methods, mandatory for the best outcome. The prevention, assessment, and intervention methods for sarcopenic dysphagia are very important. Recent studies demonstrate that new concepts in rehabilitation and nutritional support render promising results.
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Perspective Article JFSF, Vol 3, No 1, March 2018, p.8-12
Hip fractures in the elderly without osteoporosis
Argyris Costa Hadjimichael
Keywords: Hip fractures, Bone Mineral Density, Falls, Osteoporosis
Abstract
In clinical practice, hip fracture is a very common reason for hospital admission in the elderly. Most subjects over the age of 65 years, experience an injury at the hip mostly after a fall. Many elderly persons suffer from osteoporosis, which is characterised by loss of bone mass and deterioration of bone microarchitecture thus increasing the susceptibility to fracture. Osteoporosis is defined by WHO as a Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of 2.5 standard deviations (SD) below that of a young adult as assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). It has been shown that some patients with a hip fracture have either normal or "osteopenic" hips as defined by DXA (-2.5<T-score<1). Other diseases that usually affect the elderly population may constitute independent risk factors for falls and fractures, such as diabetes mellitus, neurologic conditions, sarcopenia, use of medication. The clinician"s role apart from treating osteoporosis is also to address secondary causes related to increase risk of fracture including falls in order to decrease the incidence of hip fractures. This article addresses some common pathological conditions that have been shown to predispose for hip fractures individuals regardless of their DXA BMD status.
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Review Article JFSF, Vol 3, No 1, March 2018, p.13-25
A contemporary therapeutic approach to bone disease in beta-thalassemia - a review
Dimitrios Stefanopoulos, Nikolaos A. Papaioannou, Athanassios G. Papavassiliou, George Mastorakos, Andromachi Vryonidou, Aikaterini Michou, Ismene A. Dontas, George Lyritis, Eva Kassi, Symeon Tournis
Keywords: Thalassemia, Osteoporosis, Bisphosphonates, Denosumab, Activin-A
Abstract
Homozygous beta-thalassemia represents a serious hemoglobinopathy, in which an amazing prolongation in the survival rate of patients has been achieved over recent decades. A result of this otherwise positive evolution is the fact that bone problems have become a major issue in this group of patients. Through an in-depth review of the related literature, the purpose of this study is to present and comment on the totality of the data that have been published to date pertaining to the prevention and treatment of thalassemia bone-disease, focusing on: the contribution of diet and lifestyle, the treatment of hematologic disease and its complications, the management of hypercalciuria, the role of vitamins and minerals and the implementation of anti-osteoporosis medical regimen. In order to comprehensively gather the above information, we mainly reviewed the international literature through the PubMed database, searching for the preventive and therapeutic data that have been published pertaining to thalassemia bone-disease over the last twenty-nine years. There is no doubt that thalassemia bone-disease is a complication of a multi-factorial etiopathology, which does not follow the rules of classical postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates have been the first line of treatment for many years now, with varied and usually satisfactory results. In addition, over the last few years, more data have arisen for the use of denosumab, teriparatide, and other molecules that are in the clinical trial phase, in beta-thalassemia.
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Original Article JFSF, Vol 3, No 1, March 2018, p.26-34
Breaking sedentary behaviour has the potential to increase/maintain function in frail older adults
Juliet A. Harvey, Sebastien F.M. Chastin, Dawn A. Skelton
Keywords: Sedentary Behavior, Sitting Time, Physical Function, Frailty, Older Adults
Abstract
Objectives: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effect of a sedentary behaviour (SB) reduction intervention (Stomp Out (Prolonged) Sitting (SOS)) in frail older adults. Methods: Participants (>65years) were recruited from sheltered housing complexes and randomized into 2 groups. On weeks 2, 6 and 10 both groups had face-to-face 40min motivational sessions, including feedback on physical function and SB. One group had the addition of real-time tactile feedback on sitting. Total sedentary time and patterns of SB were recorded by activPAL, along with validated measures of function: Timed Up and Go (TUG), Sit-to-Stand (STS) and balance tests. Outcomes were analyzed by intention-to-treat mixed model analysis. Results: Twenty-three participants started the SOS intervention. Health issues led to high attrition in this frail population. TUG (4 seconds faster) and STS (>2 rises more in 30 seconds) scores improved significantly in both groups. There were no significant changes in SB parameters. Conclusion: Motivational interviewing alongside functional test feedback, visual and real-time feedback on SB improved physical function over the study. This pilot study suggests that sit-to-stand transitions to break prolonged sitting time may help reduce frailty and functional decline in people who are often unable to engage in more intense exercise interventions.
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