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Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2018

Perspective Article JFSF, Vol 3, No 3, September 2018, p.125-127
Active Ageing
Yannis Dionyssiotis
Keywords: Active ageing, Elderly, European Programs
On July 13th 2010, Lazlo Andor (Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion) declared that active ageing could make the baby-boomers generation a part of the solution of the demographic problem, instead of identifying with it. This is the reason why the “Europe 2020” strategy draws the attention to the necessity of ensuring that the elderly will remain healthy and active for as long as possible. The purpose of this article is to define the exact concept of “active ageing”, its content, as well as some beneficial tips by applying innovative programs in order to promote it in the European Union. Reading the published papers the impression is that despite the increasing number of the elderly in Europe, the potential of an active life while ageing can be beneficial in many ways for the society. It is required that the local and regional authorities create the appropriate conditions for participation, while making thoughtful use of the European funding programs.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 3, No 3, September 2018, p.128-131
The prevalence of sarcopenia in fallers and those at risk of falls in a secondary care falls unit as measured by bioimpedance analysis
Katherine Sarah Barnes, Barbara Smeed, Rachael Taylor, Victoria Hood, Katherine Brooke-Wavell, Adrian Slee, Jesper Ryg, Tahir Masud
Keywords: Sarcopenia, Falls, Bio-impedance, Prevalence, Muscle
Objectives: Sarcopenia is characterised by loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with adverse outcomes: physical disability, poor quality of life and death. Low muscle mass and strength are risk factors for falls, although there are few data available on the prevalence of sarcopenia in fallers. This study aimed to determine prevalence of sarcopenia in older people referred to a falls clinic. Methods: Consecutive patients referred to a secondary care falls unit were recruited. Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia definition (low muscle mass and function) and cut-off points. Bio-impedance measured appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Gait speed and grip strength were functional measures. Results: Fifty-eight patients were recruited. Mean (SD) grip strength for women and men respectively were 17.9 (4.9) and 29.9(8.7) kg, mean (SD) gait speeds were 0.61(0.18) and 0.72 (0.4) m/s, mean (SD) appendicular skeletal muscle index in women and men were 6.98(1.0) and 7.85 (1.0) kg/m2 (p=0.018). Prevalence of sarcopenia was 9.8% (95% CI=1.6%-18%). Conclusions: Sarcopenia, as measured by bio-impedance is not uncommon in older people accessing a secondary care falls clinic. Bio-impedance was simple to perform, although further validation against gold standard methods is needed. As nutritional and exercise interventions for sarcopenia are available, simple methods for diagnosing sarcopenia in fallers should be considered.
Research protocol - Ongoing Trial JFSF, Vol 3, No 3, September 2018, p.132-137
A co-created intervention with care home residents and university students following a service-learning methodology to reduce sedentary behaviour: The GET READY project protocol
Maria Giné-Garriga, Marlene Sandlund, Philippa M. Dall, Sebastien F.M. Chastin, Susana Pérez, Dawn A. Skelton
Keywords: Co-creation, Care home residents, Physical activity, Sedentary behaviour, Service-learning methodology
Background: There is a growing demand for long-term care settings. Care-home residents are a vulnerable group with high levels of physical dependency and cognitive impairment. Long-term care facilities need to adapt and offer more effective and sustainable interventions to address older residents’ complex physical and mental health needs. Despite the increasing emphasis on patient and public involvement, marginalised groups such as care-home residents, can be overlooked when including people in the research process. The GET READY project aims to integrate servicelearning methodology into Physical Therapy and Sport Sciences University degrees by offering students individual service opportunities with residential care homes, in order to co-create the best suited intervention with researchers, older adults of both genders (end-users) in care homes, health professionals, caregivers, relatives and policy makers. Methods: Stage 1 will integrate a service-learning methodology within a Physical Therapy module in Glasgow and Sport Sciences module in Barcelona, design two workshops for care home residents and one workshop for staff members, relatives and policy makers and conduct a co-creation procedure. Stage 2 will assess the feasibility, safety and preliminary effects of the co-created intervention in a group of 60 care home residents, within a two-armed pragmatic randomized clinical trial. Identifier: NCT03505385.
Review Article JFSF, Vol 3, No 3, September 2018, p.138-147
Diagnostic imaging of two related chronic diseases: Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis
Luciana La Tegola, Maria Mattera, Samantha Cornacchia, Xiaoguang Cheng, Giuseppe Guglielmi
Keywords: Sarcopenia, Osteoporosis, DXA, QCT, MRI
Sarcopenia and osteoporosis are two major health problems worldwide, responsible for a serious clinical and financial burden due to the increasing life expectancy. Both when presented as a single entity and, in particular, in the form of “osteosarcopenia”, they lead to an important increased risk of falls, fractures, hospitalization and mortality. In dealing with these two pathological conditions, it is important to understand that between bone and muscle there is not only a functional correlation but also a close relationship in the development and in maintenance, which is well expressed by the concept of “bone-muscle unit”. This close relationship agrees with the existence of a linear association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis, in particular in elderly population. It is mandatory, in the clinical assessment of both diseases, to do an early diagnosis or to delay as far as possible the appearance of an established form in order to prevent the onset of complications. The aim of this review is to present the different imaging modalities available for a non-invasive investigation of bone and muscle mass and quality in osteoporosis and sarcopenia, with their application and limitations.
Mini Review Article JFSF, Vol 3, No 3, September 2018, p.148-154
Current and former smokers and hip fractures
Dimitris G. Ampelas
Keywords: Smoking, Former smoker, Current smoker, Hip fracture, Non-smokers
The purpose of this review is to examine the correlation between tobacco smoking and hip fractures. The literature that was used for this article was based on studies that investigated not only the direct correlation between smoking and hip fractures but also the effect of smoking on bone mineral density. In general, the incidence of hip fracture was found to be higher in current smokers in both genders. Compared with never smokers, former smokers had a slightly higher risk of hip fracture that was inversely proportional to the cessation span. The relative risk (RR) of hip fracture in current male smokers was higher than the RR for nonsmokers (never and former smokers). In postmenopausal women former and current smoking increased the RR. In premenopausal and postmenopausal women, cessation of smoking decreases the risk of hip fracture. Risk rises with greater cigarette consumption. Risk declines among former smokers, but the benefit is not observed until 10 years after cessation.