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Volume 3, Issue 4, December 2018

Review Article JFSF, Vol 3, No 4, December 2018, p.155-178
Adverse events and safety issues associated with physical activity and exercise for adults with osteoporosis and osteopenia: A systematic review of observational studies and an updated review of interventional studies
Setor K. Kunutsor, Sarah Leyland, Dawn A Skelton, Laura James, Matthew Cox, Nicola Gibbons, Julie Whitney, Emma M. Clark
Keywords: Osteoporosis, Physical activity, Exercise, Adverse events, Systematic review
Objectives: We conducted a systematic review to identify adverse effects of physical activity and/or exercise for adults with osteoporosis/osteopenia. We synthesised evidence from observational studies, and updated three previously published systematic reviews. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, grey literature and reference lists of relevant studies. Selection criteria were: (1) observational studies in patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia; and (2) in accordance with the criteria used in the previous reviews. A narrative synthesis was conducted for the observational data. Random effects meta-analysis was undertaken for the review updates. Results: For the observational synthesis 14 studies were included. The majority of studies reported no adverse events, reduced incidence/improvement, or no significant change after physical activity or exercise. Activities that involved spinal flexion (certain yoga moves and sit-ups) were associated with a greater risk of vertebral fractures but these events were rare. For the update of reviews, 57 additional studies were identified. Exercise was generally associated with a greater number of minor adverse events including mild muscle/joint pain. Serious adverse events were rare and could not be attributed to the intervention. Conclusion: Patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia can safely participate in structured exercise programmes, whether at home or in supervised facilities. Systematic review registration for observational studies: PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017070551
Original Article JFSF, Vol 3, No 4, December 2018, p.179-184
Physical, mental, and social functioning in women age 65 and above with and without a falls history: An observational case-control study
Lisbeth Rosenbek Minet, Katja Thomsen, Jesper Ryg, Lars Matzen, Tahir Masud, Charlotte Ytterberg
Keywords: Falls, Functioning, Older women, Observational study
Objectives: There is a lack of knowledge about how falls are associated with the older person’s physical, mental, and social functioning which would help find effective methods for identifying rehabilitation needs in the older population to ensure appropriate follow-up. The aim was to investigate and compare functioning in women with and without a falls history. Methods: This was an observational case-control study. Study participants were fallers aged ≥65 years recruited consecutively from a hospital; age matched randomly selected community controls (fallers without contact with the healthcare system due to falls and non-fallers). Fallers were classified as once only fallers and recurrent fallers. Results: The sample constituted a group of older women with and without a falls history; 117 fallers from the Falls Clinic, and 99 fallers and 106 non-fallers community controls, median age 80 years. Both fallers from the clinic and the community had significantly lower functioning compared to non-fallers in all three domains. Recurrent fallers had poorer functioning compared to once only fallers. Conclusion: This study contributes to knowledge about older people’s functioning and disability in conjunction with a high fall-risk and highlights the importance of rehabilitation and prevention strategies that focus on early identification of disability in the older population regardless of falls history.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 3, No 4, December 2018, p.185-193
Association between the instrumented timed up and go test and cognitive function, fear of falling and quality of life in community dwelling people with dementia
Jonathan M. Williams, Samuel R. Nyman
Keywords: Cognition, Fear of falling, Inertial Sensor, Balance, Falls
Objective: To explore relationships between the instrumented timed up and go test (iTUG) and the following risk factors for falls: cognitive functioning, fear of falling (FoF), and quality of life (QoL) in people with dementia. Methods: 83 community-dwelling older adults with dementia (mean±sd age 78.00±7.96 years; 60.2% male) completed an interview to capture global cognition (Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Evaluation), FoF (Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale) and QoL (ICEpopCAPability measure for Older people). Participants completed an iTUG whilst wearing an inertial sensor on their trunk. Linear accelerations and rotational velocities demarcated sub-phases of the iTUG. Relationships were explored through correlations and regression modelling. Results: Cognition was related to duration of walking sub-phases and total time to complete iTUG (r=0.25-0.28) suggesting gait speed was related to cognition. FoF was most strongly related to turning velocity (r=0.39-0.44), but also to sit-to-stand, gait sub-phases and total time to complete iTUG. Sub-phases explained 27% of the variance in FoF. There were no correlations between iTUG and QoL. Conclusions: Cognition and FoF were related to time to complete walking sub-phases but FoF was more closely related to turning velocity and standing acceleration. iTUG may offer unique insights into motor behaviour in people with dementia.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 3, No 4, December 2018, p.194-202
Prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia and dynapenia in elderly people
Thiago Neves, Eduardo Ferriolli, Marcela Bomfim Martin Lopes, Milene Giovana Crespilho Souza, Carlos Alexandre Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende Fett
Keywords: Prevalence, Strength, Sarcopenia, Muscle, Aged
Objectives: There is little information about the risk factors for sarcopenia and dynapenia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia and dynapenia and to verify which risk factors are associated with the elderly population. Methods: A total of 387 elderly people were evaluated. We used a questionnaire to identify sociodemographic and behavioral aspects. For physical performance, we used the Short Physical Performance Battery. Using the European Working Group of Sarcopenia in Older People consensus, we defined sarcopenia that includes the occurrence of low muscle mass, added to low muscle strength or low physical performance. Dynapenia was defined using handgrip strength. Results: Sarcopenia and dynapenia were identified in 15.3% and 38.2% of the elderly people, respectively; 15.8% of women and 14.2% of men had sarcopenia, and 52.4% of women and 13.5% of men had dynapenia. Sarcopenia was associated with the increase in aging, white race, smoking, and risk of malnutrition. Dynapenia is more likely to occur in women and hospitalized patients. Conclusion: Sarcopenia had a greater association with the risk factors evaluated here, mainly with smoking and nutritional status. On the other hand, dynapenia was different, having a greater association with hospital intervention.