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Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2021

Original Article JFSF, Vol 6, No 2, June 2021, p.36-42
Exploring osteoporosis sufferers knowledge on sedentary behaviour in the management of their disease
Caera L. Grady, Fiona Muirhead, Dawn A. Skelton, Alexandra Mavroeidi
Keywords: Knowledge, Older Adults, Osteoporosis, Sedentary Behaviour, Views
Objectives: 1) To develop an understanding of the thoughts and opinions of older women diagnosed with osteoporosis regarding sedentary behaviour and 2) Investigate strategies used to reduce sedentary behaviour for future intervention development. Methods: Eleven older women with osteoporosis (mean age=68.2y±6.6(SD)) participated in semi-structured interviews (March-May 2020). They were recruited from the Royal Osteoporosis Society (Scottish) support group networks and the Strathclyde Age-Friendly-Academy. Telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using Braun & Clarke (2006). Results: Three main themes emerged: ‘Older Women’s Knowledge’, ‘Motivators to reduce Sedentary Behaviour’ and ‘Older Adult’s and Technology’. Participants reported an increase/maintenance of physical activity levels after osteoporosis diagnosis, had a good understanding and awareness of sedentary behaviour and how it affects health holistically. Participants identified motivators to interrupt sedentary behaviour (e.g. family/friends) and facilitators of sedentary behaviour (e.g. Television). Technology appeared to be used widely among participants to track movement patterns (e.g. Fitbit) but access and usability were identified as potential barriers when using technology to reduce sedentary behaviour among older adults. Conclusion: Knowledge does not appear to be a factor that needs addressing in relation to sedentary behavior in older women diagnosed with osteoporosis. Identified motivators and barriers could increase awareness of sedentary behaviour among older adults.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 6, No 2, June 2021, p.43-49
Poor handgrip strength determined clinically is associated with falls in older women
Silvia G.R. Neri, Ricardo M. Lima, Heitor S. Ribeiro, Baruch Vainshelboim
Keywords: Accidental falls, Aging, Hand Strength, Muscle weakness, Sarcopenia
Objectives: To assess the association between poor handgrip strength (HGS) determined by clinical criterion and incidence of falls in older women. Methods: The cohort included 195 women (68.1±6.2 years) who were assessed for HGS (Jamar Dynamometer) at baseline and were prospectively followed for 18 months. FNIH Sarcopenia threshold of HGS adjusted for body mass index (<0.56) was used for clinical determination of poor HGS. Association between poor HGS and incidence of falls was analyzed using Cox hazard models in the total cohort and in a stratified analysis by balance status. Results: During the follow-up, 53 (27%) women experienced at least one fall. In a multivariable model, poor HGS was associated with approximately 3-fold increased risk for falls [Hazard Ratio (HR)=2.73, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.28–5.82, p=0.009]. In a stratified analysis, women with impaired balance exhibited even greater risk for falls (HR=3.85, 95%CI=1.47–10.12, p=0.011), although no association was found in women with normal balance (p=0.459). Conclusions: Poor HGS based on clinical criterion is independently associated with higher risk of falls in older women, particularly in those with impaired balance. These results suggest potential prognostic value of FNIH Sarcopenia threshold for risk stratification and referring high-risk individuals to fall prevention programs.
Opinion Article JFSF, Vol 6, No 2, June 2021, p.50-56
Effects of sleep deprivation on sarcopenia and obesity: A narrative review of randomized controlled and crossover trials
Konstantinos Prokopidis, Yannis Dionyssiotis
Keywords: Cortisol, Energy balance, Sarcopenia, Sleep restriction, Testosterone
Shortened and fragmented sleeping patterns occupying modern industrialized societies may promote metabolic disturbances accompanied by increased risk of weight gain and skeletal muscle degradation. Short-term sleep restriction may alter energy homeostasis by modifying dopamine brain receptor signaling, leading to hyperpalatable food consumption and risk of increased adiposity. Concomitantly, the metabolic damage caused by lower testosterone and higher cortisol levels may stimulate systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and suppress pathways involved in muscle protein synthesis. These changes may lead to dysregulated energy balance and skeletal muscle metabolism, increasing the risk of sarcopenic obesity, an additional public health burden. Future trials controlling for food intake and exploring further the influence of sleep deprivation on anabolic and catabolic signaling, and gut peptide interaction with energy balance are warranted.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 6, No 2, June 2021, p.57-65
Can the exercise-based and occupational therapy improve the posture, strength, and mobility in elderly Greek subjects with hip fracture? A non-randomized control trial
Nikolaos Terzis, Konstantinos Salonikidis, Paraskevi Apostolara, Nikolaos Roussos, Konstantinos Karzis, Athanasios Ververidis, Georgios Drosos
Keywords: Aging, Hip fracture, Mobility, Posture, Rehabilitation
Objectives: The effects of a rehabilitation program on static balance, mobility, and strength of lower limbs in elderly fallers operated after a hip fracture and non-operated were studied. Methods: Ninety-one elderly (>65 years) were divided in two groups, the Operated Group (OG, 43 fallers) and the Non-Operated Group (NOG, 48 fallers). Posture during bipedal stance (30s), mobility (Up-and-Go, Falls Efficacy Scale, Berg Balance Scale) and isokinetic strength of several muscular groups in both limbs were evaluated before and after a rehabilitation intervention, consisting in 20 sessions (3 sessions/week) including kinesiotherapy and occupational therapy. Results: After intervention, the average velocity of Center of Pressure displacement decreased significantly for OG and NOG (p<0.005). Similarly, all other variables describing static balance, mobility (p<0.05) and isokinetic strength (p<0.005) were improved significantly for both groups. Conclusions: The applied intervention led to improvement in static balance, mobility, and strength of lower limbs after hip fracture. Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine physicians should prescribe evidence-based rehabilitation protocols in elderly fallers because they could show just as remarkable improvements as non-operated patients when the program is carefully designed.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 6, No 2, June 2021, p.66-78
Implementing grip strength assessment in hip fracture patients: a feasibility project
William J. Doherty, Thomas A. Stubbs, Andrew Chaplin, Sarah Langford, Nicola Sinclair, Kinda Ibrahim, Mike R. Reed, Avan A. Sayer, Miles D. Witham, Antony K. Sorial
Keywords: Feasibility, Grip strength, Hip fracture, Implementation, Sarcopenia
Objectives: Risk stratification scores are used in hip fracture surgery, but none incorporate objective tests for low muscle strength. Grip strength testing is simple and cheap but not routinely assessed for patients with hip fracture. This project aimed to assess the feasibility of implementing grip strength testing into admission assessment of patients with hip fracture. Methods: A scalable protocol and a corresponding training programme of instructional presentations and practical assessments were designed and delivered by and for physiotherapy staff. Grip strength values were collected pre-surgery on patients with hip fracture at a single centre whilst supine in bed. Implementation of the process was evaluated using narrative, quantitative and cost measures. Results: 53 hip fracture patients with a mean age 80.6 (SD 10.4), of which 36 (67.9%) were female, were included. Testing was offered to 42/52 (81%) patients. Cognitive impairment prevented 14/42 (33%) of patients from completing testing; one patient declined testing. Of the 27 patients who completed testing, 14/27 (52%) had low grip strength as defined by EWGSOP2 criteria. The projected cost of testing for one year was £2.68-£2.82 per patient. Fidelity to the protocol was high using multiple criteria. Conclusions: Grip strength assessment is acceptable to physiotherapy staff and can be rapidly and cost-effectively implemented into hip fracture admission assessment.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 6, No 2, June 2021, p.79-85
Comparing the Modified Frailty Index with conventional scores for prediction of cardiac resynchronization therapy response in patients with heart failure
Ajay Raj, Ranjit Kumar Nath, Bhagya Narayan Pandit, Ajay Pratap Singh, Neeraj Pandit, Puneet Aggarwal
Keywords: Cardiac resynchronization therapy, Frailty, Heart failure, Risk score model
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare, Modified Frailty Index (mFI), EAARN (LVEF <22%, Atrial Fibrillation, Age ≥70 years, Renal function (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2), NYHA class IV), and ScREEN (female Sex, Renal function (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2), LVEF ≥25%, ECG (QRS duration ≥150 ms) and NYHA class ≤III) score for predicting cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response and all-cause mortality. Methods: In this prospective, non-randomized, single-center, observational study we enrolled 93 patients receiving CRT from August 2016 to August 2019. Pre-implant scores were calculated, and patients were followed for six months. Performance of each score for prediction of CRT response (defined as ≥15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume [LVESV]) and all-cause mortality was compared. Results: Optimal CRT response was seen in seventy patients with nine deaths. All the three scores exhibited modest performance for prediction of CRT response and all-cause mortality with AUC ranging from 0.608 to 0.701. mFI has an additional benefit for prediction of prolonged post-procedure stay and 30-day rehospitalization events. Conclusion: mFI, ScREEN and EAARN score can be used reliably for predicting all-cause mortality and response to CRT.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 6, No 2, June 2021, p.86-91
Change in BMI affects the risk of falling in postmenopausal osteopenic and osteoporotic women
Dimitris A. Nikolaou, Stavroula Rizou, Vasileios S. Nikolaou, George C. Babis, Efstathios Chronopoulos
Keywords: Body Mass Index, Falls, Osteopenia, Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal women
Objectives: To investigate the impact of the body mass index (BMI) change on risk of falling in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. Also, we aimed to evaluate and associate the individuals’ functionality, mobility and balance with the risk of falling. Methods: This one-year prospective observational study assessed 498 postmenopausal Greek women over the 50th year of age suffering from either osteoporosis or osteopenia. Parameters such as the height, weight and BMI were documented. Furthermore, the subjects were asked whether they experienced a fall the preceding year. Balance was evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale, the Timed-Up-And-Go test, and the 30 Seconds Sit-to-Stand test. Hand-grip strength was assessed with the Jamar Hydraulic Hand Dynamometer. Results: The observed one-year BMI change was associated with falls in postmenopausal osteopenic and osteoporotic women over the age of 70. Additionally, there were statistically significant changes in the BBS, TUG, 30CST and the hand-grip strength on both hands at the one-year follow-up but there were not associated with an increased fall risk. Conclusion: The one-year change in BMI was associated with the risk of falling in postmenopausal osteopenic and osteoporotic women over the 70th year of age. Whereas, the one-year change in balance, mobility and grip strength were not linked to an increased risk of falling.