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JFSF Vol 5, No 3, September 2020, p.62-71

doi: 10.22540/JFSF-05-062


Original Article

The prevalence of cognitive frailty and pre-frailty among older people in Bangkok metropolitan area: a multicenter study of hospital-based outpatient clinics

Panuwat Wongtrakulruang1, Weerasak Muangpaisan2, Bubpha Panpradup3, Aree Tawatwattananun4, Monchai Siribamrungwong5, Sasinapha Tomongkon6

  1. Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
  2. Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
  3. Department of Nursing, Lerdsin Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
  4. Department of Nursing, Krathum Baen Hospital, Samut Sakhon, Thailand
  5. Department of Internal Medicine, Lerdsin Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
  6. Department of Internal Medicine, Krathum Baen Hospital, Samut Sakhon, Thailand

Keywords: Cognitive frailty, Dementia, Frailty, Mild cognitive impairment, Pre-frailty


Objectives: To identify the prevalence of, and factors associated with, cognitive frailty and prefrailty, and to investigate correlation between frailty tools. Methods: One hundred and ninety five older adults were recruited from the medical outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary hospitals in Bangkok metropolitan region. The data collected were demographic information, lifestyle factors, functional status, mood assessment, and cognitive and frailty assessments. The frailty tools used were Frailty Phenotype and FRAIL scale. Results: The prevalence of pre-frailty, frailty, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), cognitive pre-frailty and cognitive frailty was 57.4%, 15.9%, 26.2%, 14.4% and 6.7%, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that age ≥70 years (OR 5.34; 95% CI 2.06-12.63), and education at primary school or under (OR 4.18; 95% CI 1.61-10.82) were associated with cognitive frailty and cognitive pre-frailty. The correlation between physical frailty rated by the Modified Fried Frailty Phenotype and the FRAIL scale was good (Kappa coefficient = 0.741). Conclusions: The prevalence of cognitive frailty is not uncommon which requires screening and interventions. Age and a low educational level were related to cognitive frailty/prefrailty. The FRAIL scale yielded a high correlation with Frailty phenotypes, implying its benefit in routine clinical use in primary care practice, where there is limited time and resources.