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JFSF Vol 7, No 3, September 2022, p.133-146

doi: 10.22540/JFSF-07-133


Original Article

Development and validation of a fall risk Questionnaire in Greek community-dwelling individuals over 60 years old

Chrysoula Argyrou1, Yannis Dionyssiotis2, Antonios Galanos1, Ingka Kantaidou3, John Vlamis4, Ioannis K. Triantafyllopoulos5, George P. Lyritis1, Ismene A. Dontas1, Efstathios Chronopoulos1,6

  1. Laboratory for Research of the Musculoskeletal System “Th. Garofalidis”, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, General Hospital of Athens KAT, Greece
  2. Spinal Cord Injury and Rehabilitation Clinic, University of Patras, Greece
  3. Physiotherapy Department, Municipality of Neapoli – Sykies, Thessaloniki, Greece
  4. 3rd University Orthopaedic Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, KAT Hospital, Athens, Greece
  5. 5th Orthopaedic Department, HYGEIA Hospital, Athens, Greece
  6. 2nd University Orthopaedic Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Konstantopoulio Hospital, Athens, Greece

Keywords: Community-dwelling adults, Elderly, Older adults, Questionnaire, Risk of falls


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire that can reliably recognize Greek individuals over the age of 60 with increased risk of falls. Methods: An 11-item self-reported Questionnaire (LRMS) was developed and delivered to 200 individuals. Collected data were compared to Timed Up and Go (TUG), Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), Tinetti Assessment Tool, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) and Morse fall scale. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: Correlation between LRMS and the examined tools was high TUG (r=0. 831), FES-I (r=–0.820), Tinetti balance (r=–0.812), Tinetti gait (r=–0.789), GDS-15 (r=–0.562), and Morse fall scale (r=0.795). Cronbach’s alpha for LRMS total score was 0.807. ICC of the LRMS total score was 0.991. The area under the curve of LRMS was 0.930 (cut-off point 10.5, 95% C.I. 0.88 - 0.98, p<0.001, sensitivity=86%, specificity=98%) with TUG as gold standard, 0.919 (cut-off point 11.5, 95% C.I. 0.88 - 0.96, p<0.001, sensitivity=85%, specificity=89%) with FES-I and 0.947 (cut-off point 10.5, 95% C.I. 0.91 - 0.98, p<0.001, sensitivity=93%, specificity=91%) with Tinetti. Conclusions: The LRMS Questionnaire showed sufficient internal consistency, excellent test–retest reliability and high correlation with the already established tools for fall risk assessment. It is short and easy to use without assistance from specially trained personnel.
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