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JFSF Vol 7, No 3, September 2022, p.151-164

doi: 10.22540/JFSF-07-151


Review Article

Interventions and measurement instruments used for falls efficacy in community-dwelling older adults: A systematic review

Shawn Leng-Hsien Soh1,2, Judith Lane2, Ashleigh Yoke-Hwee Lim1, Mariana Shariq Mujtaba1, Chee-Wee Tan3

  1. Health and Social Sciences Cluster, Singapore Institute of Technology, Singapore
  2. Dietetics, Nutrition & Biological Sciences, Physiotherapy, Podiatry & Radiography Division, Queen Margaret University, Musselburgh, United Kingdom
  3. Department of Physiotherapy and Paramedicine, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Keywords: Falls efficacy, Interventions, Older adults, Outcome measures, Systematic review


Falls efficacy has been defined as perceived self-belief in the prevention and management of falls. In the case of community-dwelling older adults, it is essential that interventions should address the different aspects of falls efficacy in terms of balance confidence, balance recovery confidence, safe landing confidence and post-fall recovery confidence to improve their agency to deal with falls. This review aims to provide the current landscape of falls efficacy interventions and measurement instruments. A literature search of five electronic databases was conducted to extract relevant trials from January 2010 to September 2021, and the CASP tool for critical appraisal was applied to assess the quality and applicability of the studies. Eligibility criteria included randomised controlled trials evaluating falls efficacy as a primary or secondary outcome for community-dwelling older adults. A total of 302 full texts were reviewed, with 47 selected for inclusion involving 7,259 participants across 14 countries. A total of 63 interventions were identified, using exercise and other components to target different aspects of falls efficacy. The novel contribution of this article is to highlight that those interventions were applied to address the different fall-related self-efficacies across pre-fall, near-fall, fall landing and completed fall stages. Appropriate measurement instruments need to be used to support empirical evidence of clinical effectiveness.
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