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JFSF Vol 9, No 1, March 2024, p.4-9

doi: 10.22540/JFSF-09-004


Original Article

3D Topographical Scanning for the Detection of Osteoporosis

Clayton W. Maschhoff1, Yousi Oquendo1, John B. Michaud1, David Carey1, Christopher Jamero1, Julius A. Bishop1, Christopher Jin1, Malcolm DeBaun2, Michael J. Gardner1

  1. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, USA
  2. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

Keywords: Osteoporosis, DEXA, Screening, Fracture prevention, Sarcopenia


Objectives: Osteoporosis is associated with greater risk of fracture, which can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. DEXA scans are often inaccessible for patients, leaving many cases of osteoporosis undetected. A portable 3D topographical scan offers an easily accessible and inexpensive potential adjunct screening tool. We hypothesized that 3D scanning of arm and calf circumference and volume would correlate with DEXA T-scores. Methods: 96 female patients were enrolled. Patients were consented and completed a topographical scan of bilateral arms and lower legs with a mobile 3D scanner for arm and calf circumference and volume in clinic. Patient charts were then retrospectively reviewed for DEXA T-scores. Results: Forearm DEXA T-score was positively correlated with arm circumference (r = 0.49, p<0.01), arm volume (r=0.62, p<0.01), and calf volume (r=0.47, p<0.01). Femoral neck DEXA T-score was positively correlated with calf circumference (r=0.36, p<0.01) and calf volume (r=0.36, p<0.01). Conclusions: Our results showed significant correlations between DEXA T-scores and topographical measurements from mobile device acquired 3D scans, although these were in the “moderate” range. Mobile device-based 3D scanning may hold promise as an adjunct screening tool for osteoporosis when DEXA scanning is not available or feasible for patients, although further studies are needed to elucidate the full potential of its clinical utility. At a minimum, identifying a patient as high risk may promote earlier diagnostic DEXA scanning.
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