Search JFSF

Volume 6, Issue 4, December 2021

Original Article JFSF, Vol 6, No 4, December 2021, p.189-203
A mixed-methods feasibility study of a sit-to-stand based exercise programme to maintain knee-extension muscle strength for older patients during hospitalisation
Peter Hartley, Roman Romero-Ortuno, Christi Deaton
Keywords: Acceptability, Exercise, Hospital, Older people
Objectives: To determine the acceptability of an exercise programme and to identify barriers and facilitators to compliance with the programme from the participants’ perspective. Methods: Patients aged 75 years or older were recruited within the first 36 hours of hospital admission. Participants were randomised to complete two strengthening-based (intervention arm) or stretching-based (control arm) exercise sessions per-day. At hospital discharge, participants were asked to take part in interviews with a member of the research team exploring the barriers and facilitators to adherence to the intervention. Results: 15 participants (7 intervention arm, 8 control arm) were recruited before the trial was stopped due to COVID-19. Both groups showed reductions in knee-extension strength, and improvements in functional mobility at discharge from hospital. A total of 23/60 intervention sessions were classed as ‘complete’, 12/60 as partially complete, and 25/60 were missed entirely. Eight participants took part in interviews. Intrinsic factors that impacted participation in the research, related to current health, health beliefs, and experience of multi-morbidity or functional decline. Staff had both a positive and negative effect on participant adherence to the intervention. Conclusions: The exercise intervention was well received, with most participants describing health benefits, though intervention fidelity was lower than expected.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 6, No 4, December 2021, p.204-208
Prevalence of probable sarcopenia in community-dwelling older Greek people
Maria Tsekoura, Evdokia Billis, Charalampos Matzaroglou, Elias Tsepis, John Gliatis
Keywords: Older people, Prevalence, Probable sarcopenia, Sarcopenia
Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence rate of probable sarcopenia and to determine the factors associated with it in older people living in Western Greece. Methods: Probable sarcopenia was estimated based on cut-off values for handgrip strength (HGS) as recommended by EWGSOP2. Information about socio-demographic, chronic diseases, fear of falls and lifestyle of the participants were also collected. HGS was assessed using a SAEHAN dynamometer. Calf circumference was assessed with inelastic tape. A logistic regression analysis was performed in order to determine associated risk factors. Results: The sample comprised 402 participants (292 women;110 men), with a mean age of 71.51±7.63 years. Overall, 25.4% of the elderly participants were diagnosed with probable sarcopenia (men:36.4%; women:21.2%). The findings of this study demonstrated that probable sarcopenia was positively associated with age (OR=0.14, 95% CI=0.008 to 0.200), gender (OR=-0.6, 95% CI=-0.700 to -0.530), Body mass Index (OR=0.01, 95% CI=-0.030 to -0.005), Skeletal muscle mass index (OR=0.05, 95% CI=0.030 to 0.080), calf circumference (OR=0.02, 95% CI=0.007 to 0.040), and comorbidities (OR=0.04, 95% CI=0.030 to 0.080). Conclusion: There was a 25.4% prevalence of probable sarcopenia in Greek elderly. The results highlight the importance of the detection of HGS and probable sarcopenia in older people in order to develop effective strategies of prevention and intervention of sarcopenia.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 6, No 4, December 2021, p.209-217
Frailty associations with socioeconomic status, healthcare utilisation and quality of life among older women residing in regional Australia
Shi-Jynn Yong, Stella M. Gwini, Monica C. Tembo, Boon L. Ng, Chong Han Low, Robert G. Malon, Trisha L. Dunning, Julie A. Pasco, Mark A. Kotowicz
Keywords: Frailty, Healthcare utilisation, Older women, SES, QOL
Objectives: The health and well-being of older women may be influenced by frailty and low socioeconomic status (SES). This study examined the association between frailty and SES, healthcare utilisation and quality of life (QOL) among older women in regional Australia. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study was conducted on 360 women (ages ≥60yr) in the 15-year follow up. Frailty was identified using modified Fried’s phenotype. Individual SES measures and healthcare utilisation were documented by questionnaire. Area-based SES was determined by cross-referencing residential addresses with the Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD). QOL was measured using the Australian World Health Organisation Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQoL-Bref). Multinomial logistic regression was conducted with frailty groupings as outcome. Results: Sixty-two (17.2%) participants were frail, 199 (55.3%) pre-frail and 99 (27.5%) robust. Frail participants were older with higher body mass index. Frailty was associated with lower education but not marital status, occupation or IRSAD. Strong associations with frailty were demonstrated for all WHOQoL-Bref domains. Frailty was associated with more primary care doctor visits (p<0.001). Conclusions: This population-based study highlights the significant impact of frailty on older women, indicating reduced QOL and increased primary care doctor visits.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 6, No 4, December 2021, p.218-224
Proximal femoral fracture outcomes in inpatients and community patients: A comparative study
Hussam Elamin Ahmed, Emadeldeen Zourob, John Lukic, Lloyd Latimer, Joseph Anto, Aysha Rajeev
Keywords: Inpatient Falls, Mortality, Proximal Femoral Fracture
Objectives: 7% of proximal femoral fractures occur in patients admitted to hospital for unrelated medical and surgical presentations. This comparative study will assess morbidity and mortality in patients sustaining proximal femoral fractures both as inpatients and in the community. Methods: Retrospective review of patients admitted to a regional specialist hip unit with fracture of the proximal femur sustained both from the community and other inpatient settings. Patient demographics, risk factors and outcomes were recorded and analysed – with focus on 30-day and 1-year mortality. Results: 3445 patients were admitted over a 10-year period, 292 of which sustained proximal femoral fractures as an inpatient. 30-day and 1-year mortality was 23.7% and 47.9% respectively in the inpatient group, compared to 6.9% and 22.4% respectively in the community group. Mean time from presentation to operating room was 27.8 hours for the inpatient group, compared to 25.2 hours for the community group. Conclusion: Inpatients who sustain a proximal femoral fracture have significantly higher 30-day and 1-year mortality rates when compared to patients in the community sustaining the same injury. There is also a noted delay to theatre in this patient group.
Short Communication JFSF, Vol 6, No 4, December 2021, p.225-230
The impact of variation in the device used to measure grip strength on the identification of low muscle strength: Findings from a randomised cross-over study
Rachel Cooper, Carli Lessof, Andrew Wong, Rebecca Hardy
Keywords: Cut-points, Hand-held dynamometer, Grip strength, Low muscle strength, Sarcopenia
Grip strength is commonly used to identify people with low muscle strength. It is unclear what impact the type of dynamometer used to measure grip strength has on the identification of low muscle strength so we aimed to assess this. Study participants were 118 men and women aged 45-74y from a randomised, repeated measurements cross-over study. Maximum grip strength was assessed using four hand-held dynamometers (Jamar Hydraulic; Jamar Plus+ Digital; Nottingham Electronic; Smedley) in a randomly allocated order. EWGSOP2 cut-points were applied to estimate prevalence of low muscle strength for each device. Agreement between devices was compared. Prevalence of low muscle strength varied by dynamometer ranging between 3% and 22% for men and, 3% and 15% for women. Of the 13 men identified as having low muscle strength by at least one of the four dynamometers, only 8% were identified by all four and 54% by just one. Of the 15 women classified as having low muscle strength by at least one of the four dynamometers, only 7% were identified by all four and 67% by only one. Variation in the measures of grip strength acquired by different hand-held dynamometers has potentially important implications when identifying low muscle strength.
Perspective Article JFSF, Vol 6, No 4, December 2021, p.231-240
Osteosarcopenia School
Yannis Dionyssiotis, Konstantinos Prokopidis, Panagiotis Vorniotakis, Eleftherios Bakas
Keywords: Elderly, Fractures, Falls, Osteosarcopenia, Rehabilitation
Osteosarcopenia has been proposed as a syndrome in a subset of frail individuals at higher risk of falls, fractures and institutionalization. In this paper, we will go over the translational aspects of sarcopenia and osteoporosis research and highlight outcomes from different interventions. In addition, preventative measures and therapeutic interventions that can benefit both muscle and bone simultaneously will be analysed also. A new holistic concept called Osteosarcopenia School will be presented. This new concept is based on counselling and education of patients as part of a rehabilitation program, aiming to reduce the risk of social isolation, falls and fractures, and subsequent disability through muscle strengthening and balance training. In this patient group, the combination of pharmaceutical treatments and specific exercise programmes are essential to counteract the consequences of osteosarcopenia. Finally, educational programmes targeting patient functionality through social reintegration may have a substantial impact on their daily living activities and overall quality of life.
Mini Review JFSF, Vol 6, No 4, December 2021, p.241-245
Hyponatremia in the frail
Nikolaos D. Karakousis, Nikolaos A. Kostakopoulos
Keywords: Cognitive function, Frailty, Hyponatremia, Sarcopenia, Sodium
As the lifespan increases, special attention has been given to the supportive care needs of the elderly. Frailty is an important issue in third age, since it is related to poor quality of life and mortality. The prevalence of pathological conditions related to sodium levels, specifically hyponatremia, is also present in the elderly. Yet, it is unclear, if hyponatremia and frailty are related to each other. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding hyponatremia and frailty and analyzes five independent studies which searched for an association between those two parameters. As indicated by this study results, hyponatremia consists a risk factor for frailty. This could be explained by an effect of hyponatremia on sarcopenia and on cognitive function, which consist components of frailty. Thus, it is essential to monitor sodium levels in the elderly and to develop related interventions (e.g. using arginine vasopressin antagonists) in order to prevent frailty.