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Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2022

Original Article JFSF, Vol 7, No 4, December 2022, p.183-191
Is handgrip strength a useful tool to detect slow walking speed in older Indian adults: A cross-sectional study among geriatric outpatients in a tertiary care hospital in South India
Reuben Jerrald Felix, Rakesh Mishra, Jini Chirackel Thomas, Benny Paul Wilson, Antonisamy Belavendra, Gopinath Kango Gopal
Keywords: Frailty, Gait, Handgrip strength, Sarcopenia, Walking speed
Objectives: To determine whether handgrip strength can be used as a proxy for detecting slow walking speed in older adults. Measuring walking speed in older adults can be challenging as cognitive and functional decline may have a significant impact on test performance. Methods: Hundred subjects aged >/= 60 were recruited. Slow walking speed was defined as walking speed <1.0 m/s. Handgrip strength was measured using handheld dynamometer. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the two. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 67.8±6.2 years. There were 63 males and 37 females. The mean handgrip strength of the participants was 23±5.9 kgs. Older subjects had slow gait speed (r=-0.40, p<0.001) while patients with higher BMI (r=0.36, p<0.001), handgrip strength (r=0.72, p<0.001) and appendicular lean mass (r=0.53, p<0.001) had normal gait speed. On multiple linear regression analysis, only handgrip strength (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.58-0.87, p=0.001) and nutritional status (OR 8.60; 95% CI 1.98 - 37.40, p=0.004) were found to have a significant association with walking speed. Conclusions: Our study shows that handgrip strength assessment can be used as a surrogate indicator for detecting slow walking speed. Large population studies are warranted to examine its validity.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 7, No 4, December 2022, p.192-198
Muscle measurements in daily clinical practice: correlations between ultrasound, bioelectrical impedance analysis and hand grip strength
Elisa Cassiers, Sophie Bastijns, Stany Perkisas, Maurits Vandewoude, Anne-Marie De Cock
Keywords: Sarcopenia, Muscle ultrasound, Bioelectrical impedance analysis, Hand grip strength
Objectives: Muscle ultrasound is gaining importance as a measurement tool to evaluate sarcopenia in daily clinical practice. This study sought to collect reference values of the biceps brachii (BB) in healthy subjects, and to correlate them to bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and hand grip strength (HGS). Methods: Ultrasound was used to measure muscle thickness (MT), cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle stiffness (EG). Lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM) and phase angle (PhA) were measured by BIA. HGS was measured using a Jamar dynamometer. Intra-rater reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC). Correlations were investigated using Pearson correlation (PCC). Results: One-hundred-twenty-three Caucasian individuals (51 male and 72 female subjects) between 18 and 69 years old were included. ICC for ultrasound was 0.99 (CI 0.98-0.99). LM, PhA and HGS showed significant correlations with MT and CSA in the entire population (PCC>0.684). These correlations were more significant and stronger in male than in female subjects (PCC>0.419 and >0.279 resp.). Significant correlations with respect to FM and EG were seen exclusively in female subjects. Conclusion: Significant correlations were observed between parameters of muscle quantity measured by ultrasound, BIA and HGS. Intra-rater reliability was excellent. Future studies in larger populations are needed to clarify the observed gender differences.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 7, No 4, December 2022, p.199-206
Comparison of Habitual and Maximal Gait Speed and their Impact on Sarcopenia Quantification in German Nursing Home Residents
Daniel Haigis, Silas Wagner, Gorden Sudeck, Annika Frahsa, Ansgar Thiel, Gerhard W. Eschweiler, Andreas M. Niess
Keywords: EWGSOP2, Gait speed, Nursing home, Quantification, Sarcopenia
Objectives: Sarcopenia is characterized by loss of muscle strength and muscle mass. The EWGSOP2 specifications include physical functioning determination for quantification of the sarcopenia severity. However, there is a lack in the use of habitual and maximal gait speed and their influence on sarcopenia quantification. We hypothesize differences in sarcopenia quantification using habitual and maximal gait speed. Methods: Sixty-six residents from five nursing homes were examined. Habitual and maximal gait speed were measured by 4-meter-walking-Test. McNemar-Test and χ2-test were used to identify quantification differences. Effect sizes of both gait speeds were calculated with Spearman’s rank-correlation-coefficient. Results: Significant difference was identified for twenty-two residents in physical functioning classification by McNemar-Test (p<.001). χ2-Test identified a significant frequency distribution for sarcopenia categories between both gait speeds (χ2 (df2)=11.215, p=.004; Cramer’s V=.412). Significant correlations (p<.05) were only shown for maximal gait speed in variables falls in the last three months (|rs|=.326), Barthel-Index (|rs|=.415), and SARC-F (|rs|=. 335). Conclusions: The use of habitual and maximal gait speed has a significant impact on sarcopenia quantification in nursing home residents. An adapted standardization in the EWGSOP2 specifications should follow.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 7, No 4, December 2022, p.207-221
Association of Obesity with Cognitive Impairment and Depression among Oldest Old Population having Frailty syndrome
Gunampalli Anaika, Sai Sruthi Regalla, Bana Manishaa Reddy, Enakshi Ganguly, Pawan Kumar Sharma
Keywords: Cognitive Impairment, Depression, Elderly, Frailty, Obesity
Objectives: The objectives were to estimate prevalence of obesity among frail individuals aged ≥80 years and examine the association of obesity with cognitive impairment and depression among frail individuals aged ≥80 years. Methods: Two-hundred community-dwelling participants aged ≥80 years, were enrolled; 166 frail participants were further analyzed. Obesity and adiposity were determined by Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Fat Percentage (BF%). Cognitive impairment and Depression were assessed using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Frailty was assessed by Fried criteria. Chi-Square, t-test, trend-analysis and Logistic Regression (LR) were done. Results: Obesity among Frail individuals aged ≥80 years was 40% using BMI and 73.2% using WC. Obesity was inversely associated with cognitive impairment and depression among frail individuals. Severity of cognitive impairment and depression was lower among obese frail than non-obese frail. Trend-analysis showed decreasing cognitive impairment and depression with increasing BF%. On LR, obesity among frail individuals had inverse association with cognitive impairment and depression. Conclusion: Obesity among frail individuals aged ≥80 years was associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment and depression in our population. Positive effects of weight gain in oldest old frail individuals and development of cognitive impairment and dementia should be explored in further researches.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 7, No 4, December 2022, p.222-230
Identification of Probable sarcopenia based on SARC-F and SARC-CalF in older adults from a low-resource setting
Claudia L. Vidal-Cuellar, Guiliana Mas, Pamela Ayamamani-Torres, Toshio Yazawa, Oscar Rosas-Carrasco, Tania Tello
Keywords: Low-resource setting, Probable sarcopenia, SARC-F, SARC-CalF, Sarcopenia
Objectives: We aimed to investigate the frequency of probable sarcopenia and to compare the performance of SARC-F and SARC-CalF for detecting this condition in outpatient older adults from a low-resource setting. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study in outpatient older adults aged ≥60 years attending a hospital in Peru, between August 2019 and February 2020. Probable sarcopenia was defined as low handgrip strength (<27 kg in men and <16 in women). We used SARC-F and SARC-CalF with their standard cut-off points (≥4 and ≥11, respectively). Low calf circumference was defined as ≤33 cm in women and ≤34 cm in men. We performed sensitivity and specificity analyses. Results: We included 206 older adults, 102 (49.5%) aged ≥75 years old and 140 (67. 9%) females. Probable sarcopenia was present in 36.40% of the participants. SARC-F ≥4 was observed in 29.61% and SARC-CalF ≥11 in 41.26% of the population. SARC-F≥4 showed 41.33% sensitivity and 77.10% specificity, whereas SARC-Calf ≥11 had 50.67% sensitivity and 64.12% specificity. Conclusion: We found that one out of three of the population had probable sarcopenia. SARC-Calf showed superior but still low sensitivity than SARC-F, while both had moderate specificity and thus may be useful for ruling out the disease in clinical practice.
Review Article JFSF, Vol 7, No 4, December 2022, p.231-250
The effect of weight-bearing exercise on the mechanisms of bone health in young females: A systematic review
Tommy J. Cartledge, Joey Murphy, Charlie E. Foster, Byron Tibbitts
Keywords: Female, Healthy ageing, Paediatric, Peak bone mass, Physical activity
Weight-bearing exercise (WBE) has been identified as an appropriate approach for increasing peak bone mass, however, there is a lack of specific physical activity recommendations in this area. Thus, the aim of this systematic review is to determine the optimal mode of WBE, specifically identifying the intensity, duration, frequency, and load, to elicit the optimal effect on bone mass in young females, aged 5-18. A literature search was conducted from the 28th of June to the 20th of July 2021 using PubMed/Medline, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus. The search produced 1405 results, of which 15 were deemed appropriate for inclusion. The majority of studies (n=12) found a significant positive effect for at least one bone measure through their respective WBE exposure (p<0.05). Bone mass accrual was found to be site-specific depending on WBE exposure type, load, and maturity status. Also, longitudinal effects on bone mass accrual were found exclusively in gymnastics participants, even if participation level decreased (i.e., retirement). The results of this study support the use of WBE to improve parameters of bone health. However, further research is needed as the optimal mode of WBE to elicit the optimal effect on bone mass is still unclear.
Case Report JFSF, Vol 7, No 4, December 2022, p.251-256
Periprosthetic fracture of total hip replacement in patients with osteopetrosis: A case presentation and review of literature
Eftychios Papagrigorakis, Athanasios Galanis, Christos Vlachos, Michail Vavourakis, Dimitrios Zachariou, John Vlamis, Spiros Pneumaticos
Keywords: Internal fixation, Open reduction, Osteopetrosis, Periprosthetic fracture, Total hip arthroplasty
Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease characterized by impaired osteoclast activity. Total joint replacement is often necessary in these patients, as osteoarthritis is an early manifestation of the disease. However, only a few cases of periprosthetic fractures have been reported in the literature. A 73-year-old female patient sustained a periprosthetic fracture of the right femur after a fall from standing height. The patient had undergone a total hip arthroplasty surgery 10 years ago. Intraoperatively both the acetabular cup and the femoral stem were found stable, thus the fracture was treated using plating with locking screws and cables. No postoperative complication was observed and the fracture was completely healed after 6 months. Periprosthetic fracture management poses special difficulties and technical issues in patients with osteopetrosis. Hematologist consultation is an important part of the preoperative preparation, while a careful postoperative follow-up is crucial due to the high rates of postoperative complications. The intraoperative technical challenges in the management of an osteopetrotic bone are many due to the abnormal bone density. Orthopedic surgeons have to engage specific strategies to avoid pitfalls as interventions are technically challenging, leading to prolonged operative time and increased blood loss.
Corrigendum JFSF, Vol 7, No 4, December 2022, p.257
Corrigendum to: Sarcopenia in Hemiplegia
Maria C. Papadatou
The author regrets the originally published manuscript Sarcopenia in Hemiplegia, JFSF Vol 5, No 2, June 2020, p.38-41, contained an error in the “Therapeutic approach and management” section. Specifically, instead of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), mistakenly it is written selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs).