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Volume 8, Issue 4, December 2023

Original Article JFSF, Vol 8, No 4, December 2023, p.204-210
Validation of SARC-F-Proxy for the Screening of Sarcopenia in Older Patients with Cognitive Impairment
Scott Lamers, Zaid Kasim, Wendy Daniella Rodríguez-García, Pishtiwan Kalmet, Stany Perkisas, Anne-Marie De Cock, Maurits Vandewoude
Keywords: Cognition, Dementia, Geriatric population, SARC-F, Sarcopenia
Objectives: The SARC-F is a validated questionnaire for the screening of sarcopenia in an older population. However, the clinical relevance of this self-reported questionnaire in patients with cognitive problems is questionable. This study aims to validate the SARC-F-Proxy as an alternative screening tool for sarcopenia in patients with cognitive impairment. Methods: This cross-sectional study included hospitalised community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years or older with confirmed cognitive impairment. Three SARC-F questionnaires were completed: one by patients, one by informal caregivers and one by formal caregivers. Muscle strength, mass and physical performance were measured by handgrip strength, anthropometric measurements, and gait speed respectively. The recently updated EWGSOP2 diagnostic criteria were used as the “gold standard” for diagnosis of sarcopenia. Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia using SARC-F-Proxy was 75.4% for SARC-F-Proxy-Formal caregiver and 66% for SARC-F-Proxy-Informal caregiver. SARC-F-Proxy had high sensitivity (85.9% for SARC-F-Proxy-Formal caregiver and 77% for SARC-F-proxy-informal caregiver) and low specificity (46.5% for SARC-F-Proxy-Formal caregiver and 54.7% for SARC-F-Proxy-Informal caregiver). Conclusions: the proxy-reported SARC-F questionnaire can be applied as a surrogate for the SARC-F in the screening of sarcopenia in hospitalised community-dwelling older people with known or suspected cognitive impairment. Second, the results in this study suggest a higher reliability when the proxy-reported questionnaire is performed by the formal caregiver.
Original Article JFSF, Vol 8, No 4, December 2023, p.211-220
The diagnostic cut-off points for components of sarcopenia in Finnish Caucasian women: A retrospective cross-sectional study
Samu Sjöblom, Juha Suuronen, Toni Rikkonen, Risto Honkanen, Heikki Kröger, Joonas Sirola
Keywords: Body composition, Grip strength, Muscle mass, Muscle strength, Sarcopenia
Objectives: To determine the diagnostic cut-off values of components for sarcopenia in Caucasian women. Methods: The present retrospective cross-sectional study based on the REFERENCE sample included 400 healthy women aged 20 to 40 years, and the OSTPRE sample included 344 women aged 63 to 75. The subjects of the OSTPRE population were re-measured five and ten years later after the baseline. Both samples underwent grip strength (GS), quadriceps strength (QS), and total-body DXA (TB-DXA) measurements, from which Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass Index (RSMI) was calculated. Results: In the REFERENCE population, the -1 SD / -2 SD cut-off points were for RSMI 5.8 kg/m2 / 5.1 kg/m2, for GS 32.0 kg / 26.4 kg, and for QS 39.8 kg / 29.8 kg. The prevalence of under -2 SD distributions in REFERENCE were: RSMI 1.8%, GS 1.3%, and QS 2.0%, and in OSTPRE (15/20/25 years measurements): RSMI 1.2 %/1.9 %/0.5 %, GS 52.2%/42.3%/48.8%, and QS 47.4%/55.2%/not available. The distributions of GS and QS were statistically significantly different between REFERENCE and all OSTPRE measurement points (p<0.001 in Chi-squared). Conclusions: The diagnostic cut-offs for components of sarcopenia are RSMI 5.1 kg/m2, grip strength 26.4 kg, and quadriceps strength 29.8 kg in Finnish Caucasian women.
Review Article JFSF, Vol 8, No 4, December 2023, p.221-229
A Narrative Review of the Utilisation of the SHARE Frailty Instruments (SHARE-FI and SHARE-FI75+) in the Literature
Helen Doherty, Aurora Higgins Jennings, Matej Kocka, Auriane Neichel, Juliette Scauso, Elena Lionetti, Chenhui Chenhuichen, Roman Romero-Ortuno
Keywords: Frailty, Geriatric assessment, Review, SHARE-FI, SHARE-FI75+
This narrative literature review aimed to examine the utilisation of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) frailty instruments: SHARE-FI and SHARE-FI75+. We used the Google Scholar “cited by” function (accessed on February 20th, 2023) to identify all citations of the original SHARE-FI and SHARE-FI75+ studies. Included articles were categorised into four themes: epidemiological studies (prevalence and associated factors); associations with geriatric syndromes, diseases and health outcomes; randomised clinical trials (RCTs); and expert consensus and practice guidelines. Of 529 articles screened (446 citing SHARE-FI and 83 citing SHARE-FI75+), 64 (12.1%) were included. Sixteen (25.0%) were epidemiological; 35 (54.7%) described associations; 10 (15.6%) were RCTs; and 3 (4.7%) were expert consensus or practice guidelines. Frailty was associated with older age; female sex; higher morbidity; lower education; social isolation; worse nutrition and mobility; rheumatological, cardiovascular, and endocrine diseases; and greater healthcare utilisation and mortality. SHARE-FI was used in RCTs as entry criterion, controlling variable, and intervention outcome. SHARE-FI and SHARE-FI75+ have been recommended to aid the management of atrial fibrillation anticoagulation and hypertension, respectively. SHARE-FI and SHARE-FI75+, two open access phenotypical frailty measurement tools, have been utilised for a range of purposes, and mostly in epidemiological/ associational studies.
Review Article JFSF, Vol 8, No 4, December 2023, p.230-239
Why are older adults living with the complexity of multiple long-term conditions, frailty and a recent deterioration in health under-served by research? A narrative synthesis review of the literature
Lorelle Dismore, Christopher Hurst, Antoneta Granic, Ellen Tullo, Miles D. Witham, Richard M. Dodds, Avan A. Sayer, Sian M. Robinson
Keywords: Frailty, Multiple long-term conditions, Older people, Recent deterioration in health, Under-served by research
Older adults living with the complexity of multiple long-term conditions (MLTC), frailty and a recent deterioration in health are under-served by research. As a result, current treatment guidelines are often based on data from studies of younger and less frail participants, and often single disease focused. The aims of this review were (i) to identify why older adults living with the complexity of MLTC, frailty and a recent deterioration in health are under-served by research and (ii) to identify strategies for increasing their recruitment and retention. Although a range of factors have been suggested to affect the participation of older adults with MLTC and frailty in research, this review shows that much less is known about the inclusion of older adults living with the complexity of MLTC, frailty and a recent deterioration in health. Researchers should focus on strategies that minimise participation burden for these patients, maintaining an adaptive and flexible approach, to increase their recruitment and retention. Future research should include qualitative interviews to provide further insights into how best to design and conduct research to suit the needs of this population group.
Review Article JFSF, Vol 8, No 4, December 2023, p.240-253
Fall risk question-based tools for fall screening in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review of the literature
Chrysoula Argyrou, Yannis Dionyssiotis, Antonios Galanos, John Vlamis, Ioannis K. Triantafyllopoulos, Ismene A. Dontas, Efstathios Chronopoulos
Keywords: Community-dwelling older adults, Elderly, Fall risk, Fall risk screening, Questionnaires
Fall screening tools aim to accurately identify the high fall risk individuals. To increase ease of administration and cost-effectiveness many studies focus on question-based tools. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify question-based tools for fall risk assessment in community-dwelling older adults over the age of 60 and the risk factors that are covered by these tools. The PRISMA guidelines were followed. A literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Data quality assessment was performed with the Ottawa-Newcastle scale. The results identified 20 studies that used 22 question-based tools to assess fall risk. The number of questions per tool varied from 1 to 41 questions. Data quality varied greatly, with values 3-9 for cohort and 2-7 for cross-sectional studies. The most commonly reported fall risk factors were fall history, feeling of unsteadiness, fear of falling, muscle strength, gait limitation and incontinence. Healthcare providers should use the above tools with caution regarding the limitations of each tool. Further studies should be designed to address individuals with high fall risk, such as individuals with cognitive impairment, as they are under-represented or excluded from most of the existing studies.
Perspective Article JFSF, Vol 8, No 4, December 2023, p.254-260
Muscle quality an evolving concept
Roberto Coronado-Zarco, Andrea Olascoaga-Gómez de León
Keywords: Functional, Morphological, Muscle ageing, Muscle quality, Sarcopenia
Muscle quality concept can be analyzed from a morphological and functional perspectives that include relation between these properties. Morphological muscle quality considers muscle composition, architectural and structural properties. Functional muscle quality has been defined as a ratio between muscle strength or power per unit of muscle mass or area. Biological and adaptative changes to ageing must be considered when interpretation of muscle quality assessment is done in a clinical or research context. One of the conditions that requires an adequate homologation in terminology is sarcopenia, to establish definition and cut-off points.